Unit 1: Fundamentals of DC and AC


The flow of charge is called the current and it is the rate at which electric charges pass though a conductor. The charged particle can be either positive or negative.In order for a charge to flow, it needs a push (a force) and it is supplied by voltage, or potential difference. The charge flows from high potential energy to low potential energy.

Where the symbol I to represent the quantity current.

Electro-magnetic force(E.M.F)

Electromotive Force is, the voltage produced by an electric battery or generator in an electrical circuit or, more precisely, the energy supplied by a source of electric power in driving a unit charge around the circuit. The unit is the volt. A difference in charge between two points in a material can be created by an external energy source such as a battery. This causes electrons to move so that there is an excess of electrons at one point and a deficiency of electrons at a second point. This difference in charge is stored as electrical potential energy known as emf. It is the emf that causes a current to flow through a circuit.


Voltage is electric potential energy per unit charge, measured in joules per coulomb ( = volts). It is often referred to as "electric potential", which then must be distinguished from electric potential energy by noting that the "potential" is a "per-unit-charge" quantity. Like mechanical potential energy, the zero of potential can be chosen at any point, so the difference in voltage is the quantity which is physically meaningful. The difference in voltage measured when moving from point A to point B is equal to the work which would have to be done, per unit charge, against the electric field to move the charge from A to B.

Electric potential:

A gravitational analogy was relied upon to explain the reasoning behind the relationship between location and potential energy. Moving a positive test charge against the direction of an electric field is like moving a mass upward within Earth's gravitational field. Both movements would be like going against nature and would require work by an external force. This work would in turn increase the potential energy of the object. On the other hand, the movement of a positive test charge in the direction of an electric field would be like a mass falling downward within Earth's gravitational field. Both movements would be like going with nature and would occur without the need of work by an external force. This motion would result in the loss of potential energy. Potential energy is the stored energy of position of an object and it is related to the location of the object within a field.

Potential Difference:

A quantity related to the amount of energy needed to move an object from one place to another against various types of forces. The term is most often used as an abbreviation of "electrical potential difference", but it also occurs in many other branches of physics. Only changes in potential or potential energy (not the absolute values) can be measured.

Electrical potential difference is the voltage between two points, or the voltage drop transversely over an impedance (from one extremity to another). It is related to the energy needed to move a unit of electrical charge from one point to the other against the electrostatic field that is present. The unit of electrical potential difference is the volt (joule per coulomb). Gravitational potential difference between two points on Earth is related to the energy needed to move a unit mass from one point to the other against the Earth's gravitational field. The unit of gravitational potential differences is joules per kilogram.


Resistance is the ratio of potential difference across a conductor to the current flowing through it. If energy is used in passing electricity through an object, that object has a resistance.

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