Chain Surveying

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Chain Surveying:

         Chain surveying is the simplest method of surveying in which only the linear measurements are needed, and no angular measurement is necessary. The plot of area to be surveyed are divided into number of triangles. The figure shows a simple network of triangles ADE, AEB, DFC and FCB and  surveying is being continued. Chain surveying is suitable mainly at level and open ground.  The extent of area is usually small.It is not suitable for the crowded area with many details, undulating areas, wooded areas and large area.

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Chain Surveying Instrument

Base line:

The biggest or longest of the main survey lines is called base line. Various survey stations are plotted with reference to this line.

Check lines:

The check lines are called proof lines. They are run to check the accuracy of the field works.

Tie lines:

These are lines which joint subsidiary or the stations on the main lines. The objective of the line is to take details of  nearby objects. It also serves as the purpose of check lines.


Offsets are lateral distances measured from survey line to determine the locations. These may be perpendicular offsets on oblique offset or tie. In figure A, B, C and D are main survey lines, DB is base line AE, CF are check lines ab, cd, ef are offsets to plot the building, etc.

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