Toe-in Toe-out

Toe-in and toe-out is the angle that the wheels deviate from the driving direction. It is used because the driving force and road resistance tends to squeeze the rubbers in the suspension. By giving the car a toe-in or toe-out setting the wheels are in a straight line when driving. The rear wheels seldom have toe-in or toe-out. The front wheels of a rear wheel driven car mostly have toe-in. Toe-out is used in front wheel driven cars because the driving force tends to turn the wheel inwards. The kingpin inclination also plays a (minor) role in how much toe-in or toe-out is needed. The less kingpin inclination the more steering momentum is generated pulling the wheel inwards thus more toe-out is also needed to compensate.

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