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In FDM, the frequency bandwidth of the line is divided into a number of partitions, each of which is used as a separate logical channel. Radio and TV broadcasting represent the oldest examples of FDM. To avoid neighboring channels from interfering with one another, the extreme ends of the channel frequencies are left unused to provide a gap. For example, a line that has a bandwidth of 30 kHz can be divided into 3 times 10 kHz channels, each of which consists of 8 kHz of bandwidth for data and two gaps of 1 kHz on either side. FDM requires special multiplexing/demultiplexing hardware (MUX) at either end of the line.