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There are various ways of doing EARTHING:
The Conventional system of Earthing calls for digging of a large pit into which a GI pipe or a copper plate is positioned amidst layers of charcoal and salt. It is cumbersome to install only one or two pits in a day.
The Conventional system of GI pipe Earthing or copper plate Earthing requires maintenance and pouring of water at regular interval.
Maintenance free earthing:
It is a new type of earthing system which is ready made, standardized, scientifically developed.
Advantages of Free earthing:
How earthing Works?
The basic idea of a safety from electrical disaster the same everywhere. The case (chassis) of the equipment (and except for special situations, the internal electronics) is connected to an earth pin on the mains outlet. This is then connected through the house wiring and switchboard to an electrically solid earth point, which is called EARTHING or GROUNDING.
Should a fault develop within the equipment that causes the active (live) conductor to come into contact with the chassis, the fault current will flow to earth, and the equipment or main switchboard fuse or circuit breaker will blow. This protects the user from electric shock, bypassing the dangerous current directly to earth, rather than through the body of the unsuspecting poor bastard who just touched it.
Earth leakage circuit breakers (RCD - residual current detectors) measure the current in the active and neutral conductors. If these differ by more than a few milliamps, the circuit is disconnected. The principle is simple - if the current in the two wires differs, some of it must be going somewhere that is undesirable, so the supply is interrupted almost instantly. While these are mandatory in some countries (or under some circumstances), it is best not to rely on any advanced technique, but provide a system that is intrinsically safe.