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Ground wave propagation:
A radio wave can leave the antenna in a straight line and progress along the ground. ground waves leave an antenna in all directions in the case of a vertical one and mainly from their broadside in the case of a horizontal antenna.
Ground waves are always vertically polarized, because a horizontally polarized ground wave would be shorted out by the conductivity of the ground. Because ground waves are actually in contact with the ground, they are greatly affected by the ground’s properties. Because ground is not a perfect electrical conductor, ground waves are attenuated as they follow the earth’s surface.
This effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies, limiting the usefulness of ground wave propagation to frequencies below 2 MHz. Ground waves will propagate long distances over sea water, due to its high conductivity